Ansible自动化运维平台部署

 4个月前     34  

文章目录

一、部署前准备

  • 部署机器准备
  • 计算机名解析
  • 关闭防火墙、selinux
  • 时间同步
  • 软件包获得
  • ssh免密登陆

约定事项:

  1. 所有服务器全部采用静态ip
    主机名称 IP地址
    manage01 192.168.98.200/24
    node1 192.168.98.201/24
    node2 192.168.98.202/24
    node3 192.168.98.203/24
  2. 主机名及主机名互相绑定
    [root@manage01 ~]# cat /etc/hosts
    127.0.0.1   localhost
    ::1         localhost 
    192.168.98.200  manage01
    192.168.98.201  node1
    192.168.98.202  node2
    192.168.98.203  node3
    
    其他机器同理
  3. 关闭防火墙, selinux
    [root@manage01 ~]# systemctl disable firewalld
    [root@manage01 ~]# sed -i -r '/SELINUX=/cSELINUX=disabled' /etc/selinux/config
    [root@manage01 ~]# reboot
    
    其他机器同理
  4. 采用时间服务器,时间同步
    1、修改配置文件,配置时间服务器为阿里云的时间服务器
    [root@manage01 ~]# egrep "^server" /etc/chrony.conf 
    server ntp1.aliyun.com
    server ntp2.aliyun.com
    server ntp3.aliyun.com
    server ntp4.aliyun.com
    
    #注释
    # pool 2.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst
    
    2、重启服务chronyd
    [root@manage01 ~]# systemctl restart chronyd.service 
    
    3、查看源信息
    #chronyc chrony的命令行客户端
    [root@manage01 ~]# chronyc sources -v
    210 Number of sources = 2
    
      .-- Source mode  '^' = server, '=' = peer, '#' = local clock.
     / .- Source state '*' = current synced, '+' = combined , '-' = not combined,
    | /   '?' = unreachable, 'x' = time may be in error, '~' = time too variable.
    ||                                                 .- xxxx [ yyyy ] +/- zzzz
    ||      Reachability register (octal) -.           |  xxxx = adjusted offset,
    ||      Log2(Polling interval) --.      |          |  yyyy = measured offset,
    ||                                     |          |  zzzz = estimated error.
    ||                                 |    |           
    MS Name/IP address         Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample               
    ===============================================================================
    ^? 120.25.115.20                 2   6     1     3   +663us[ +663us] +/-   23ms
    ^? 203.107.6.88                  2   6     1     2  -1326us[-1326us] +/-   17ms
  5. 确认和配置yum源(需要epel源)
    [root@manage01 ~]# yum -y install epel-*

    6.ssh远程连接

    管理端和被管理端连接时基于ssh的,所以有两种连接方式

    1)基于ssh口令

    2)基于ssh证书(重点讲解)

    如果想不需要运维人员干预,被管理端必须允许管理端证书免密登陆。

  6. #管理端manage01生成ssh公私钥
    [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-keygen 
    Generating public/private rsa key pair.
    Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
    Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
    Enter same passphrase again: 
    Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
    Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
    The key fingerprint is:
    SHA256:aufJno2QjPK/V63/PVW13h5oWlKu0jk7HesXYTho0gM root@manage01
    The key's randomart image is:
    +---[RSA 2048]----+
    |                 |
    |         E      .|
    |          o . . o|
    |         . = + +.|
    |        S o.+ = +|
    |     o o  ...* +o|
    |  . . * ....O o.+|
    |   o . =.*.B o +.|
    |    ..o+B oo*oo o|
    +----[SHA256]-----+
    
    #将公钥传给node1
    [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.201
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: ".ssh/id_rsa.pub"
    The authenticity of host '192.168.98.201 (192.168.98.201)' can't be established.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:u+yOQz+E+eF7Oixdz/vClLXlAEu/7K8jy783gzk20dQ.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:c0:80:1b:ae:93:32:c2:66:f5:da:2f:1c:26:1e:7e:f8.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
    root@192.168.98.201's password: 
    
    Number of key(s) added: 1
    
    Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.98.201'"
    and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
    
    #将公钥传给node2
    [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.202
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: ".ssh/id_rsa.pub"
    The authenticity of host '192.168.98.202 (192.168.98.202)' can't be established.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:X4JeiiFuwV0cja81veAyGCosriEfZm/zv34cfYkuxmU.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:7d:17:0f:80:d5:2b:30:ec:2c:62:f9:79:6b:fb:5f:bc.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
    root@192.168.98.202's password: 
    
    Number of key(s) added: 1
    
    Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.98.202'"
    and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
    
    #将公钥传给node3
    [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.203
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: ".ssh/id_rsa.pub"
    The authenticity of host '192.168.98.203 (192.168.98.203)' can't be established.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:PtpsYBjaXkE+o3j8QYU5Ju8uPgcW2lVW8wsx4X1PV/c.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:50:a1:63:a0:ef:e7:61:26:11:25:ae:06:ec:93:cb:18.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
    root@192.168.98.203's password: 
    
    Number of key(s) added: 1
    
    Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.98.203'"
    and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
    
    小窍门
    免交互创建公私钥
    [root@manage01 ansible]# ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -N ""   
    -f 指定密钥存放路径
    -N ""  新密码设置问空
    -P ""  老密码是什么
    
    如何可以非交互式传公钥呢
    [root@manage01 ansible]# yum -y install sshpass
    [root@manage01 ansible]# sshpass -p111111 ssh-copy-id -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -i /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.202 
    
    StrictHostKeyChecking   严厉的主机监测=no  就不会问你yes|no了 
    sshpass 非交互式传密码
    
    测试证书是否生效
    [root@manage01 ~]# for i in seq 201 203;do > ssh root@192.168.98.$i "hostname" > done node1 node2 node3 看到返回客户端的计算机名称

二、ansible管理端部署

2.1)管理端安装ansible

安装方式:

1)yum

[root@manage01 ~]# yum -y install ansible
[root@manage01 ~]# ansible --version
ansible 2.8.5
  config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
  configured module search path = ['/root/.ansible/plugins/modules', '/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
  ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python3.6/site-packages/ansible
  executable location = /usr/bin/ansible
  python version = 3.6.8 (default, May 21 2019, 23:51:36) [GCC 8.2.1 20180905 (Red Hat 8.2.1-3)]

2) 源码

1、官网下载地址:https://releases.ansible.com/ansible
[root@manage01 ~]# wget https://releases.ansible.com/ansible/ansible-2.9.3.tar.gz
2、安装ansible
[root@manage01 ~]# tar xf ansible-2.9.3.tar.gz 
[root@manage01 ~]# mv ansible-2.9.3 /opt/ansible
[root@manage01 ~]# cd /opt/ansible-2.9.3
#python软件包安装--1、安装依赖
[root@manage01 ansible-2.9.0rc3]# pip3 install -r requirements.txt -i https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple/
[root@manage01 ansible]# ln -s /usr/bin/pip3 /usr/bin/pip
#python软件包安装--2、安装软件
[root@manage01 ansible-2.9.0rc3]# pip install --user ansible -i https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple/

#安装后设置
[root@manage01 ~]# ln -s /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/python
[root@manage01 ~]# ln -s /opt/ansible/bin/* /usr/bin/
[root@manage01 ~]# cp /opt/ansible/examples/ansible.cfg /etc/ansible/
[root@manage01 ~]# cp /opt/ansible/examples/hosts /etc/ansible/

FAQ1

[root@manage01 ansible-2.9.0rc3]# ./bin/ansible -m ping 192.168.98.201
 [WARNING]: No inventory was parsed, only implicit localhost is available

 [WARNING]: provided hosts list is empty, only localhost is available. Note that
the implicit localhost does not match 'all'

 [WARNING]: Could not match supplied host pattern, ignoring: 192.168.98.201

 触发原因
 执行ansible的时候回去读取客户端文件hosts,如果没有把客户端加入到hosts文件,就说明无法ansible无法管理。

 解决方案
 [root@manage01 ansible]# mkdir /etc/ansible
 [root@manage01 ansible]# cp examples/hosts /etc/ansible/
 #将需要管理的客户端IP地址写入hosts文件,可以分组或者直接写
 [root@manage01 ~]# cat /etc/ansible/hosts 
 192.168.98.[201:203]

 分组
 [group1]
192.168.98.[201:203]

2.2)ansible管理服务器部署

管理端ansible目录:/etc/ansible

[root@manage01 ansible]# tree 
.
├── ansible.cfg           #ansible配置文件,不需要配置
├── hosts                                   #主机列表
└── roles                 #角色列表

1 directory, 2 files

2.3)部署主机列表,定义被监控机

[root@manage01 ansible]# egrep -v "(^#|^$)" /etc/ansible/hosts 
[group1]                    #名字可以随便起  后面跟上业务机器的IP地址或者域名
192.168.98.201
192.168.98.202
192.168.98.203

关于业务机器分组

分组中使用范围
[nginx]                 组名
apache[1:10].aaa.com    表示apache1.aaa.com到apache10.aaa.com这10台机器
nginx[a:z].aaa.com      表示nginxa.aaa.com到nginxz.aaa.com共26台机器
10.1.1.[11:15]          表示10.1.1.11到10.1.1.15这5台机器

如果业务机器的SSH端口不是22
10.1.1.13:2222          表示10.1.1.13这台,但ssh端口为2222

指定业务机器别名,未做免密登陆的机器可以通过下面的机器设置账号密码
nginx1  ansible_ssh_host=10.1.1.13 ansible_ssh_port=2222 ansible_ssh_user=root ansible_ssh_pass="123456"

ansible_ssh_host  指定业务机器的IP或域名
ansible_ssh_port  指定业务机器的ssh端口
ansible_ssh_user  指定业务机器的ssh用户名
ansible_ssh_pass  指定业务机器的ssh用户名密码

利用机器别名分组
nginx1  ansible_ssh_host=10.1.1.13 ansible_ssh_port=2222 ansible_ssh_user=root ansible_ssh_pass="123456"
nginx2  ansible_ssh_host=10.1.1.12

[nginx]
nginx1    #写服务器别名
nginx2

[root@manage01 ansible]# egrep -v "(^#|^$)" /etc/ansible/hosts 
#别名定义
web1 ansible_ssh_host=192.168.98.203 ansible_ssh_port=12121

#分组
[group1]
192.168.98.201
#未做免密登陆机器
192.168.98.202:12121 ansible_ssh_user=sko ansible_ssh_pass='123'
#别名机器
web1 ansible_ssh_user=sko ansible_ssh_pass='123'

2.4)测试管理机和业务机器的联通性

我们可以使用ansible通过调用ping模块来测试分组机器或某个机器
-m 指定使用的模块   group1  业务机器分组
#测试单个机器
#测试主机列表中的机器

#测试单个机器方法
[root@manage01 ~]# ansible -m ping 192.168.98.201
192.168.98.201 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"
    },
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

#测试主机列表中的机器方法
[root@manage01 ~]# ansible -m ping group1
192.168.98.201 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"
    },
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}
192.168.98.203 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"
    },
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}
192.168.98.202 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"
    },
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

三、学习视频

视频:部署前准备
视频:ssh证书互信设置
视频:ansible平台部署
视频:主机列表文件hosts文件
视频:ansible自动化平台部署知识图谱

本文源自: ,由Re于4个月前整理编辑,共 8577 字。
链接地址:Ansible自动化运维平台部署 | Lose Today,转载请注明出处!

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